Nicholas Woolf and Christina Silver's publications 


Nicholas Woolf's publications

Silver, C., & Woolf, N. H. (2015). From guided instruction to facilitation of learning: The development of Five-level QDA as a CAQDAS pedagogy that explicates the practices of expert users. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(5).

Chilton, M. M., Rabinowich, J. R., & Woolf, N. H. (2014). Very low food security in the USA is linked with exposure to violence. Public health nutrition, 17(01), 73-82.

Woolf, N. H. (2014). Analytic strategies and analytic tactics. Keynote address at ATLAS.ti User Conference 2013: Fostering Dialog on Qualitative Methods, Technische Universität Berlin. Retrieved from

Woolf, N. H. & Yim, J. M. J. (2012). The Courtroom-Observation Program of the Utah Judicial Performance Evaluation Commission. Court Review, 47(4), 84-91.

McKenzie, J., Woolf, N. H., VanWinklen, C., & Morgan, C. (2009). Cognition in strategic decision-making: A model of non-conventional thinking capacities for complex situations. Management Decision, 47(2), 209 - 232

Woolf, N. H. & Quinn, J. (2009). Learners’ perceptions of instructional design practice in a situated learning activity. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(1), 25-43

Woolf, N. H., Burns, M. E., Bosworth, T. W., & Fiore, M. C. (2006). Purchasing health insurance coverage for smoking cessation treatment: Employers describe the most influential information in this decision. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8(6), 1-9.

Rodriguez, M., Wallace, S., Woolf, N. H., & Mangione, C. (2006). Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse: Between a Rock and a Hard Place. Annals of Family Medicine, 4(5), 403-409.

Woolf, N. H. & Quinn, J. (2001). Evaluating peer review in an introductory instructional design course. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 14(2), 3-26.

Lohman , M. C. & Woolf, N. H. (2001). Self-initiated learning activities of experienced public school teachers: Methods, sources, and relevant organizational influences. Teachers and teaching: theory and practice, 7(1), 59-74

Woolf, N. H. (2000). Report on interviews with women of color in the legal profession for the Utah Task Force on Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Legal System. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah, Social Research Institute.

Woolf, N. H. (2000). Report on interviews with attorneys and judges for the Utah Task Force on Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Legal System. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah, Social Research Institute.

Woolf, N. H., Harrison, R. S., Parsons, B. V., & McPhee, S. (1999). Report on the Public Hearings of the Utah Task Force on Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Legal System. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah, Social Research Institute.

Lohman, M.C. & Woolf, N.H. (1998). Toward a culture of learning in the public schools: A human resource development perspective. Teaching and Change, 5(3-4), 276-293.

Christina Silver's publications

Publications 2

Christina Silver & Nicholas H. Woolf From guided-instruction to facilitation of learning: the development of Five-level QDA  as a CAQDAS pedagogy that explicates the practices of expert users. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Volume 18, Issue 5

Christina Silver & Christine Rivers (2015) The CAQDAS Postgraduate Training Model: an interplay between methodological awareness, analytic adeptness and technological proficiency. International Journal of Social Research Methodology

Christina Silver & Ann Lewins (2014, 2nd Edition) Using Software in Qualitative Research : A Step-by-Step Guide, Sage Publications

Christina Silver & Jennifer Patashnick (2011) ‘Finding Fidelity : Advancing Audiovisual Analysis using Software’, FQS 12(1), Thematic Issue: Is Qualitative Software Really Comparable?

Christina Silver & Ann Lewins (2010) ‘Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis’ in Penelope Peterson, Eva Baker, Barry McGaw (Editors), International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol 6, pp 326-334. Oxford: Elsevier

Christina Silver & Nigel Fielding (2008) Using Computer Packages in Qualitative Research, in Willig C & Stainton-Rogers W (eds.) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology, London, Sage Publications.



Thanks again for a great session! I really can't imagine how we could have proceeded without this kind of in depth training. Now on to the real work...
Jennifer Sweeney, MSLS, PhD
School of Education, University of California, Davis


Big moment for CAQDAS: QDA-XML exchange

Big moment for CAQDAS: QDA-XML exchange
By Christina Silver on Mar 18, 2019 at 05:15 PM in CAQDAS commentary

It's finally here - the ability to exchange analysed qualitative data between CAQDAS programs! Since September 2016 the developers of seven CAQDAS programs have been working together to develop an open source xml exchange standard.

Today the first version was released - a big moment in the history of CAQDAS and something that will change the way that researchers and teachers can work.

Find out more at and start exchanging CAQDAS projects !


An ode to Kandy Woodfield’s CAQDAS contributions

An ode to Kandy Woodfield’s CAQDAS contributions
By Christina Silver on Mar 15, 2019 at 05:26 PM in CAQDAS commentary

I was shocked and deeply saddened to see a tweet from Kandy Woodfield’s account announcing her passing. As Rob stated, she was a very much loved wife, sister, auntie, sister-in-law, and cats’ mum. My thoughts and condolences are with them all, during these most difficult times. I knew Kandy in a professional context, and I very much liked her as a person – she was always kind, thoughtful, humourous, poignant and vivacious.

This post highlights just one part of Kandy’s professional life – her contribution to the field of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS). Together with her colleagues at The National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) Kandy developed the FrameWork Software. This work had a big impact on the field of qualitative and mixed methods social/policy research practice. It also influenced my thinking about the role of CAQDAS packages, and the relationship between technology and methodology more broadly. I hope this post goes some way to honouring Kandy’s impact in these areas.


Calling for a revolution – we have to get rid of codes

Calling for a revolution – we have to get rid of codes
By Nicholas Woolf on Jan 17, 2019 at 06:17 PM in CAQDAS commentary

Codes are the example par excellence for our constant banging on about strategies and tactics. Reminder: strategies are what you plan to do, and tactics are how you plan to do it. When using a CAQDAS program, the tactics are very different in nature from the analytic strategies. A strategy might be to compare the men and women respondents in a study by separately conceptualizing the male responses from the female responses. The tactic to fulfil it will depend on the CAQDAS package you use, but it will involve software tools that allow you to collect together selected items of data that have been tagged or grouped by you in the software so that you can compare them on screen or in printed form. Whatever the tools in your chosen software, they will have nothing to do with the subtleties of male and female characteristics or gender issues. Instead they will involve processing data in the software to accomplish your purpose. These are two extremely different ways of thinking, but because both are called ‘coding’ you unconsciously and unhelpfully think about them in the same way. For this reason we should stop using the term ‘code’ for the strategies level of our conceptualization work.


Mindsets matter: think about how you think about CAQDAS programs

Mindsets matter: think about how you think about CAQDAS programs
By Christina Silver on Oct 31, 2018 at 02:06 PM in Five-Level QDA issues & ideas

On 17th October 2018 I had the privilege of opening the Digital Tools day at the World Conference on Qualitative Research (#WCQR2018) in Lisbon, Portugal. My talk was called “Mindsets for harnessing digital tools in qualitative and mixed-methods analysis: The Five-Level QDA method”. My main message was that we need to be more explicit about the way we think about the role of digital tools in the research process and our engagement with them.


Can tactics inform strategies?

Can tactics inform strategies?
By Christina Silver on May 25, 2018 at 08:41 AM in Five-Level QDA in practice

Analytic strategies come before software tactics: that’s the Five-Level QDA approach. But there are times when software tactics can usefully inform analytic strategies. This leads to serendipitous exploration, and fits well with the emergent spirit of qualitative research.

When analytic strategies drive software tactics the use of the software is meaningful – focused on the needs of the research rather than the capabilities of the program. But many CAQDAS advocates say that new software features (tactics) do offer new analytic possibilities (strategies), and so the relationship goes both ways. I agree.

While I usually discuss the downsides of software tactics driving analytic strategies, here is an example from the workshop I led at the MQIC in Berlin earlier this year of tactics appropriately informing strategies.